Sub-acute Toxicological Evaluation of Methanol Whole Plant Extract of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (D.C) Danser in Wistar Rats
Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (Loranthaceae), has diverse ethnomedicinal uses which include the management of mental illness, epilepsy, diarrhoea, malaria, pain and hypertension. Despite these uses and many validated pharmacological properties, the safety of T. dodoneifolius is yet to be evaluated. This study therefore, aimed to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity profile of methanol whole plant extract of T. dodoneifolius in rats. Phytochemical screening of the plant extract was carried out according to standard protocols. Oral median lethal dose (LD50) was estimated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 423 limit test. Doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of the extract were administered for 28 consecutive days using the OECD 407 guideline. The body weights of animals were taken at 7 days interval within 28 days period. Thereafter, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for haematological, biochemical and electrolyte analysis. The spleen, heart, liver, kidney, lungs and stomach were also collected for histological examinations. The extract contains alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and carbohydrate. The LD50 was found to be ≥ 5000 mg/kg. The extract showed significant (p≤0.05) increase in body weight and decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP). There was no significant difference in the mean organ weight. The histological studies did not reveal any serious abnormalities in the organs examined. The methanol whole plant extract of T. dodoneifolius does not possess the toxic effects that could affect its ethnomedicinal uses.
Pharmacognostic And Anti-Inflammatory Studies on The Aerial Parts of Diodia sarmentosa Swartz (Rubiaceae)
Diodia sarmentosa Sw. belongs to the family Rubiaceae. The plant is commonly known as “Tropical buttomweed”. It is a scrambling annual or perennial herb of 1-4.5m long, used traditionally to treat pains, dysentry and inflammatory conditions. The present studies aimed at establishing the pharmacognostic profile of Diodia sarmentosa and define pharmacological rationale for the use of the aerial part of the plant in the management of inflammatory conditions in traditional medicine. The pharmacognostic parameters and Anti-inflammatory activities were determined by standard methods. The macroscopy and organoleptic evaluation showed dark-green leaf and stem, leaf taste odourless, stem taste slight bitter, leaf texture charteceous, and stem texture pubescent. The microscopic study of the leaf and stem shows diagnostic anatomical features. The plant material was extracted using methanol and 70% methanol and the phytochemical screening carried out. The methanol extract of Diodia sarmentosa at the doses of (400 and 600 mg/kg body weight) significantly inhibits the paw oedema at the 3rd hour at (p<0.01).While 400 mg/kg of the 70% mehanol extract at the 3rd hour significantly inhibits the oedema at (p<0.05).The present study established Pharmacognostic profile of Diodia sarmentosa aerial part for its proper identification, quality and purity as a crude drug and also its utilization in the management of inflammatory conditions by traditional medical practitioners.
ISSN: 2659 – 1472
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